This An Introdution to Contrastive Linguistics is mainly based upon series of lectures delivered to senior-students at Department of Foreign Linguistics and renovated with the ideas of Bùi Mạnh Hùng (Ngôn ngữ học đối chiếu, 2008), Chesterman A. (Contrastive Functional Analysis, 1998), Gómez-González M. de los Á. and Doval-Suárez S.M. (On contrastive linguistics: Trends, challenges and problems, 2005), Кашкин В.Б. (Аспекты языка и коммуникации, 2010 and Пособие Сопоставительная Лингвистика, 2002), Krzeszowski T., (Contrasting Languages: Scope of Contrastive Linguistics: Trends in Linguistics: Studies & Monographs, 1990), Kurtes S. (New horizons for contrastive analysis: grammatical prototypes as tertium comparationis, 2009), Lê Quang Thiêm (Nghiên cứu đối chiếu các ngôn ngữ, 2004).

The course provides students with an introductory treatment of a field of linguistics that has developed recently and is connected tightly with multicultural and multilingual lives. It examines the main problems associated with the contrastive studies of languages for teaching, learning second language (third, fourth...) and translation in definite fields of contrastive linguistics (contrastive lexicology and grammar, contrastive phonetics and phonology, contrastive study of discourse, text, communications...), with the methodology and tertium comperationis of contrastive linguistics.

The deductive aim of the course - to help language students, teachers, linguists, translators, general theoretical training linguists in their understanding of theoretical concepts of contrastive linguistics in practical multilingual and multicultural contacts. Along with this, the course is also aimed at realizing comparative methods and their procedures in learning languages, which are especially important for students in their independent studies and scientific work.

The course involves the formation and improvement of the following students' competences:

- To determine the theoretical approach for contrastive studies;

- To apply adequate terminologies and conceptual aspects in their definite contrastive studies;

- To determine what they can apply in their studies and jobs.

- To adapt comparative methods in their own contrastive studies.

The course book would not have been completed without the invaluable and constructive comments from my colleagues at Department of Foreign Linguistics, Vinh University, Asso. Prof. Le Cong Thin, Dr. Tran Ba Tien, Ph.D. Nguyen Thi Kim Anh. I owe them a massive intellectual debt.

Errors in the textbook are undoubtedly unavoidable. I welcome any further comments and criticisms that can go towards improving this An Introduction to Contrastive Linguistics.


                                                              Le Dinh Tuong

ĐỀ CƯƠNG CHI TIẾT MÔN HỌC AN INTRODUCTION TO LINGUISTICS 1. LANGUAGE AND LINGUISTICS 1.1. Language and the properties 1.1.1. Arbitrariness 1.1.2. Productivity 1.1.3. Duality 1.1.4. Displacement 1.1.5. Cultural transmission 1.2. Nature of communication 1.2.1. Behavior 1.2.2. A code 1.3. Linguistics areas and fields 1.3.1. General structure of language 1.3.2. Levels of linguistic structure 2. PHONOLOGY AND ORTHOGRAPHY 2.1. Phonetics 2.1.1. Consonants 2.1.2. Vowels 2.1.3. Suprasegmentals (Differences in pitch, Duration, Differences in stress) 2.2. Phonology 2.2.1. Phonetic unit 2.2.2. Phoneme 2.3. Orthography 2.3.1. Writing 2.3.2. Homophone 2.3.3. Alphabetic Writing 2.3.4. Spelling and Speech 3. LEXICOLOGY 3.1. The morpheme 3.1.1. Different types of morphemes 3.1.2. Allomorphs 3.1.3. Morphological typology 3.2. Word 3.2.1. The concepts of openness and productivity, revisited 3.2.2. Compounding 3.2.3. Acronym formation 3.2.4. Clipping 3.2.5. Blending 3.2.6. Derivation 3.2.7. Back-formation 3.3. Parts of Speech (Lexical Categories) 3.3.1. Noun (N) 3.3.2. Pronouns (Pro) 3.3.3. Adjective (Adj) 3.3.4. Verbs (V) 3.3.5. Adverb (Adv) 3.3.6. Preposition (Prep) 3.3.7. Conjunction (Conj) 3.3.8. Interjection (Interj) 4. GRAMMAR 4.1. Syntax 4.2. Syntactic Construction 4.2.1. Types of syntactic structures 4.2.2. Types of sentences and clauses 4.2.3. Phrases 4.3. The Constituent Structure of Sentences 4.3.1. The constituents of a sentence 4.3.2. Phrase structure rules 4.3.3. Transformational rules 3.3.4. Basic phrase marker 4.3.5. Grammaticality Judgments 5. SEMANTICS 5.1. The meaning of words 5.1.1. Semantic properties of words 5.1.2. Markedness in semantics 5.1.3. Markedness within a domain 5.2. The –nyms 5.2.1. Hyponyms 5.2.2. Synonyms 5.2.3. Homonyms 5.2.4. Antonyms 5.2.5. Structural Semantics Metaphors 6. PRAGMATICS 6.1. Pragmatics meaning 6.1.1. Social meaning 6.1.2. Affective meaning 6.1.3. Speech acts 6.2. Maxims of conversation 6.2.1. Quantity 6.2.2. Quality 6.2.3. Relevance 6.2.4. Manner 6.3. Cross-cultural pragmatics 7. DISCOURSE ANALYSIS 7.1. Discourse 7.2. Conversation analysis 7.2.1. New information 7.2.2. Old (given) information 7.2.3. Presupposition 7.3. Background knowledge 8. SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION 8.1. Communicative competence 8.1.1. Communicative components 8.1.2. 8.2. Second language learning methods 8.1.1. The grammar–translation method 8.1.2. The audiolingual method 8.1.3. Communicative approaches 8.2. Learner's learning 8.2.1. Transfer 8.2.2. Interlanguage 8.2.3. Motivation 8.2.4. Input and output 9. LANGUAGE CULTURE 9.1. Categories 9.1.1. Kinship terms 9.1.2. Time concepts 9.2. Cognitive categories 9.2. 1. Classifiers 9.2.2. 9.3. Social categories 9.3.1. Address terms 9.3.2. Gendered words REFERENCES A Tài liệu bắt buộc [1] Le, D. Tuong (2017). Elements of Language and Linguistics: An Introduction (Unoffical). Vinh University. [2] Lyons, J. (1981). Language and Linguistics: An Introdution. Cambridge University Press. [3] Yule, G. (2010) (Fourth Edition). The Study of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. B Tài liệu đọc thêm [4] Cao, Xuân Hạo (2006). Tiếng Việt: Sơ thảo ngữ pháp chức năng. Nxb Khoa học Xã hội. [5] Council of Europe (Modern Language Division, Strasbourg). (2011). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Cambridge University Press. [6] Halliday, M.A.K. (2004) (Third Edition). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. (Revised by Matthiessen Ch. M.I.M). Hodder Arnold. [7] Rozdextvenxki, Iu.v. (1997). Những bài giảng ngôn ngữ học đại cương. Hà Nội: Nxb Giáo dục. [8] Saussure, F. D. (1959). Course in General Linguistics. New York: Philosophical Library.